2010 ‘New Directions in Aboriginal Policy’ forum hears Caledonia’s pain…and hope

2010 New Directions in Aboriginal Policy forum, Mount Royal University, May 05/10: (L-R) Mark Vandermaas; Gary McHale; Ron Bourgeault; Chair - Dr. Miriam Carey; Wes Elliott (not visible)

2010 New Directions in Aboriginal Policy forum, Mount Royal University, May 05/10: (L-R) Mark Vandermaas; Gary McHale; Ron Bourgeault; Chair - Dr. Miriam Carey; Wes Elliott (not visible)

UPDATED May 13/10 — The 2010 ‘New Directions in Aboriginal Policy’ forum held at Mount Royal University in Calgary on May 05/10 was the second such event to be organized by the co-author of Disrobing the Aboriginal Industry, Dr. Frances Widdowson, and it was the first time that the voices of victims – both aboriginal and non-aboriginal – from Ipperwash and Caledonia were heard at a public policy discussion forum through presentations by activists Gary McHale and Mark Vandermaas.          

Three panels, three debates        

The forum consisted of three distinct debates. Gary McHale and I participated in Panel II – known as the ‘governance’ panel, along with Ron Bourgeault (University of Regina) and Wes Elliott (Six Nations).        

Panel II – Aboriginal Sovereignty, Indigenous
Nationalism, and the Rule of Law
(Chair: Dr. Miriam Carey)

Gary McHale (Canadian Advocates for Charter Equality) – The Face of Aboriginal Sovereignty versus the Rule of Law in Caledonia         


The romantic vision of Aboriginal sovereignty has been shattered by the reality of the events in both Caledonia and Ipperwash where the rule of law was subordinated to ad hoc Aboriginal demands based not on the concept of equality and due process, but on cultural superiority and criminal behaviour. The end result has been chaos, violence, destruction, and disruption of economic development.  

The United Nations states, “Establishing respect for the rule of law is fundamental to achieving a durable peace in the aftermath of conflict, to the effective protection of human rights, and to sustained economic progress and development. The principle that everyone – from the individual right up to the State itself – is accountable to laws that are publicly promulgated, equally enforced and independently adjudicated, is a fundamental concept which drives much of the United Nations work.”  

Unfortunately, governments have acted out of fear of Aboriginal extremism, and out of guilt for past wrongs, replacing the rule of law with appeasement to ensure peace at any cost. This ensures that future violence will occur, and guarantees communities will live in fear and resentment instead of co-existing in peace and co-operation.  

Gone are the days of people being a law unto themselves such as we have seen in Caledonia and Ipperwash. If Aboriginal communities who seek more autonomy wish to be taken seriously then they need to accept the responsibility of establishing written laws and enforcing them – for their own protection and those of their neighbours.  

Presentation Quotes 

“Malcolm X called for an armed revolution to overthrow the evil white man. Martin Luther King Jr. had a dream of Equality where one day a person would not be judged by the Colour of his Skin but by the content of their character, where the “truth is self-evident: that all men are created equal.” The only people who roamed the streets in his era with their faces covered as they committed violence were members of the KKK and Dr. King was not going to follow in their footsteps. 

“Dr. King had great respect for the Rule of Law which is why he demanded protection by the Law. The fruits of Dr. King’s approach to historical injustices lifted Black people up to the point that one is now elected as president. Dr. King’s approach not only changed a nation it also changed the hearts of millions. 

“The United Nations believes the Rule of Law is vital for peace and that Aboriginals in Canada are citizens of Canada and thus Canada has a duty to them. The Canadian Constitution recognizes Aboriginal Rights and Treaties which the Supreme Court has ruled on – many times in their favour. 

“The Rule of Law exists not just to protect non-Natives but also Native people. God forbid the day ever comes when a group of non-Natives believes they have the right to systematically attack Native People. If it does happen then what will Native People cry out? That people are not subject to the Law, or will they demand that the Rule of Law be enforced to protect them and their children?” 

Mark Vandermaas (Caledonia Victims Project) – Listening to Victims: A Fresh Approach to Healing and Reconciliation   


The 2010 ‘New Directions in Aboriginal Policy’ forum is the first time victims of ‘aboriginal sovereignty’ protesters in Caledonia and Ipperwash will have a voice at the policy discussion table. The importance of this is underscored by disastrously-flawed policy-making caused by the callous lack of concern and inclusion afforded non-aboriginal victims by government, police, NGOs and sovereignty proponents. This ‘disconnect’ makes the goal of reconciliation a practical impossibility. 

Aboriginals, too, have been victims of policing policies that allow illegal occupation sites to become lawless ‘home-free zones’ for rape, assault, arson, drug use and gun violence. One might also argue that the use of children to assist in the violent takeover of Camp Ipperwash was a form of child abuse. 

Although the Ontario government ostensibly defends its handling of the Caledonia crisis on the premise it is following recommendations of the Ipperwash Inquiry, it knows full well the Inquiry never studied the issue of aboriginal violence against innocent residents, or the effects of racial policing in escalating violence even though, according to the town’s CAO, the events at Ipperwash – including the demise of Dudley George – were caused by unequal law enforcement in the years prior to Mr. George’s death. The deliberate misapplication of intellectually-dishonest recommendations represents a tragic and dangerous policy fraud with far-reaching consequences. 

The path to healing and reconciliation, or even sovereignty itself, requires a far more mature and intellectually honest approach than has been seen to-date in aboriginal policy development. The urgency and importance of rigorous research that is inclusive of victims cannot be overstated. 

Presentation Quotes  

“It is difficult to convey to you the absolute terror, hopelessness, trauma and sense of betrayal the people of Caledonia feel to this day. Perhaps it is enough to tell you that Pam Dudych must take medication and go to counselling; Pam’s mother takes medication for her diagnosis of post traumatic stress disorder and has attempted suicide; Pam’s father has had a heart attack; the family business is in ruins, and they cannot leave because they cannot sell their home. […] 

“We must commit to a path of truth, justice – based on the rule of law – and apologies from those responsible: apologies from Six Nations; the OPP and the Ontario government. There are no shortcuts, no alternatives. If the government of Canada can – rightly – apologize for Residential Schools then these groups can apologize for Caledonia. […] 

“Finally – we seek help in reaching out to the good people of Six Nations so we may find true partners for peace who recognize the inherent wisdom of a path to healing and reconciliation based on truth, justice and apologies. Despite the terrible things done to them, the hearts of the people of Caledonia remain open, and they are eager to restore the longstanding and deeply-valued relationship with their Six Nations neighbours.” 

Wes Elliott (Six Nations) – Allies of the Crown: Honouring the Treaties is the Formula for Peace      

  • Presentation handout: ‘Formula for Peace’ [PDF]
  • Presentation video [LINK]


The Great Law of Peace contains the principles which the Creator gave to the Houdensaunee people to live in harmony with one another and the land. This foundation formed the oldest confederacy of nations in the world. It is our Constitution. When European contact came, two wampum belts or treaties, were agreed upon: the Two Row and the Silver Covenant Chain. They became the Law of the Land. Today they are still the Law of the Land. They govern the conduct between our nations. They supercede any laws created for so called justice. 

In Caledonia, both treaties have been violated. In Brantford, both treaties have been violated. In negotiations, both have been violated. We have never been conquered. We are the only native nations in Canada that are allies to the Crown. We have our own language, culture and history, but most of all, we uphold our part of the Treaties. The basic understanding of these treaties, the honouring of them, then abiding by them, is the formula for peace.  

Presentation notes/quotes 

Dr. Widdowson had attempted for some time to locate someone from the pro-sovereignty side to provide a counter-perspective to our presentations, but was unable to do so. Fortunately, Wes Elliott from Six Nations contacted Dr. Widdowson asking that he be allowed to respond to us and so, was added to the panel at the last minute.  

His presentation followed mine which followed Gary McHale’s.  Elliott provided us with a handout entitled ‘Formula for Peace’ which was: respect for treaties; healing; respect; education and friendship.   

Elliot stated that he was the first to step onto the Douglas Creek Estates on Feb 28/06, and that the Nanfan Treaty and Two Row Wampum “superceded all laws for justice.” Early on in his presentation he came over to announce that he wanted to hug Gary McHale and me – which he did as an APTN TV news camera was rolling.  He also spoke of the importance of love and respect. 

I was hoping that Mr. Elliott would have something to offer to the victims of Caledonia by way of sympathy, but it was – unfortunately – not to be.  Despite hugging both Gary McHale and me in front of cameras for an aboriginal TV outlet, he later stated that a woman from Caledonia had asked him to tell the audience we were outsiders who didn’t speak for the people of Caledonia.   

(I addressed this error by pointing out that 1822 people in Caledonia had voted for Gary McHale in the 2008 federal election, and that he had out-polled every candidate in every Caledonia poll except for two.)        

When keynote speaker Don Sandberg (see below) was finished his shocking presentation about reserve corruption, Elliott noted that while “97%” of what Sandberg said was negative, he knew that it was true.            

We were able to speak to Mr. Elliott for a few minutes at the reception following the forum and parted on friendly terms. After nearly 4 years, it was a beginning, and we were pleased that he had chosen to participate. Hopefully, this is a positive sign for the future. 

Ron Bourgeault (University of Regina) – The Aboriginal National Question: Colonialism, Self-Determination and the New Right   

  • Presentation video [LINK]


This presentation questions current Aboriginal Rights policy as advancing Aboriginal peoples’ quest for national self-determination, including self-government. I suggest it has never been an eternal, absolute truth embedded in a legal–constitutional framework. Rather, history has taught us that it has been an intricate part of British colonialism and Canada’s National Policy of territorial aggrandizement, resource appropriation, and displacement of Aboriginal peoples. The result has been their unequal incorporation into capitalism, capitalist class relations of exploitation and development, including the erosion of historic cultures and social organization but without collective assimilation. Today, initiatives in the devolution of political power, land claims agreements, and reforming the Indian Act, and the cultivation of a comprador Aboriginal business class, all proclaimed as leading to prosperity, are a continuation of that historical legacy and an intricate part of the neo-liberal agenda. 

As an alternative, national questions recognize the effect of capitalism on colonized peoples’ economies, cultures, and ethnicities. It includes an analysis of historical and present concrete political and economic factors and needs, together with class relations of exploitation and how this all combines to define the national question of historically colonized peoples. The path to national self-determination and development, which includes social, cultural, and ethnic reconstitution, involves not only the necessary economic transformation but also an address of internal and external class relations. Overall, the national question of self-determination as a concept is inclusive of all national groupings within Canada as a nation-state. 


Keynote Speaker – Don Sandberg (Frontier Centre for Public Policy, www.fcpp.org)          

About Don Sandberg (from FCPP website)        

Don Sandberg, Director, Aboriginal Frontiers Project, was born in the Pas, Manitoba and raised in the northern community of Gillam, Manitoba. He attended school with the peoples of the Fox Lake First Nation. He is a Band member of the Norway House Cree Nation, where his mother attended residential school. Has lived in First Nations communities in BC and Manitoba. He is a first cousin to former Assembly of First Nations Grand Chief Ovide Mercredi. 

Mr. Sandberg was a columnist for the Aboriginal paper “The Drum” for several years. He has been employed with many First Nations in both Manitoba and British Columbia over the years in senior management positions. In 1999, Mr. Sandberg ran as a Liberal candidate in the Manitoba Provincial election. He has spoken on native issues at political forums and on television and radio over the years. 

He is constantly in touch with the people and the issues on many First Nations and brings forward on their behalf the problems and possible solutions that affect them. His main project is the Frontier Centre’s Aboriginal Governance Index which is undertaking the only independent assessment of First Nations Governance in Canada.    

Unfortunately, Mr. Sandberg had to leave shortly after his address. Before he left, however, he kindly provided a copy of his presentation notes to Mr. McHale. The points below are taken from those notes, and from mine made during his presentation.  
The State of First Nations in Canada today     
The Frontier Centre for Public Policy conducts the only independent assessment of governance by First Nations. He got involved in trying to improve governance because of what he personally witnessed and because “I have a conscience.”

Corruption during band elections   

Corruption during band elections is rampant; they are accountable to no one. Votes are bought with promises of houses and jobs, and money. Best people not getting elected. Recalls one chief getting off plane with IGA bag full of ballots, and how hundreds of natives were removed from the voters list.   

“Bag men” guide native leaders and like things the way they are. Leaders can’t think for themselves. Some reserves have 80% unemployment but the chief is earning $200,000 tax-free.   

One chief had “a group of goons” working for him – bumped the car of elders on TransCanada Highway and cut the tires on their car. Books showed he was supposedly being paid $24,000 a year, but had new cars for him and his wife every two years, 24 horses, and travelled around the world.   

Corruption during construction bidding   

Condemns what he calls “The Huge Thing” – the “brown envelopes.” When construction is done, some reserves aren’t using their own qualified people, they use outsiders. The job goes to the one who pays the highest bribe. “If the envelope is thick enough you’ve got the project.” This corruption is widespread. “We must cut the head off the snake.” As long as the money is flowing the problems will remain.   

Education is falling short   

Education falls short on Reserve Schools. Too much pressure to just move kids on to next grade so that when they arrive at university they are 3-4 years behind. Teachers must keep quiet or be fired.
Monies should go directly to students, by-passing band councils who use education dollars for voter support and the elite’s children who are the first to benefit.
Re First Nations University of Canada in Saskatchewan: Band Councils and native elite appointed many of their own.  Board members with minimal education were overseeing the management of a university. Instead of holding meetings every quarter, they were held monthly with outrageous per diems. Sad that Saskatchewan and federal gov’t had to step in. Must focus on education, not politics.
Diabetes and obesity common on reserves. Traditional food sources has been replaced by bland diets. We must get back to the old days where we grew much of our food. Many learned the fine art of gardening in residential schools.
Residential Schools
“I wouldn’t sentence my worst enemy’s children to a Residential School, but the positive aspects of Residential Schools never comes out.” Not all natives had a bad experience. A lot of his friends went on to good careers because of Residential Schools.
Human Rights
Some reserves have a “Third World” attitude to human rights. Communisim is alive and thriving on far too many reserves – overpaid tinpot dictators operating with complete immunity.
Protectors of Mother Earth (Sandberg’s title)
Must educate native people that they can’t kill everything they see. Cited one example where native hunters found 5 moose and killed all 5. When he pointed out how damaging it was to remove all 5 from the food chain, one hunter told him, “You’re crazy!” Some areas have been “hunted out” by natives.
Natives are supposed to hunt for “sustenance,” but when he sees them hunting with fancy trucks, quads and $4,000 rifle scopes, he knows “they must have jobs, so where does the sustenance come in?”
Cited case of Metis hunter who was destitute and desperate to feed his family. Although he did not have the right to hunt, a game warden wisely used his discretion not to prosecute him for taking game out of season.
Economic Development
Natives can be real players in development instead of having an attitude of, “You owe us, you owe us.”  Opportunities are unlimited for native people. Cited couple with $100,000 income who demanded that the Band Council fix a broken window on the weekend because they did not want to wait until Monday. When Sandberg suggested they perhaps pay to fix it themselves they refused.
Home ownership promotes pride, but currently, all housing is currently owned collectively by the band. Feels that employed people should build and maintain their own homes. 

INAC not interested in addressing complaints   

INAC (Indian and Northern Affairs Canada) does not want to address complaints.  Joked about INAC – “There must be a warehouse for INAC somewhere that’s a mile long and half a mile wide stacked to the rafters with complaints.” Everything finds its way back to the chiefs, in a two year cycle which ends with retaliation against the person who complained.   

Paying a price for trying to improve First Nations   

Sandberg has paid a severe price for trying to improve reserve conditions. Says, “On First Nations, when you expose a problem, they go after you.” Was targeted for speaking out: was fired as CEO; forced off reserve; denied health care (was forced to pay himself). Lost his land and horse business when loan was called. “You do pay one heck of a price.”   

The Positive Reserves
Things are improving. Strong, educated leaders are moving into positions of authority and are starting to speak out. We must follow their example.
Clarence Louie’s reserve, population 450, is totally self-sufficient from Ottawa with a golf course and winery. He took a lot of criticism for creating arrangement that allowed others to fund development while the band received a percentage of the development. His reserve has almost zero unemployment.
Presenter Wes Elliot (Six Nations) rose to say that “97% of what you say is negative, but I am aware that what you say is true.”  Elliott questioned Sandberg on the “dangers of assimilation.” Sandberg replied that he doesn’t need the government telling me about my culture or heritage. He said that no one can take his family, or grandparents from him.
To another questioner who was wondering why Sandberg seemed so negative, he replied that “the biggest problem is “total control by the chiefs over their people. Why would they want to change that? They are too damn comfortable, and we need to stir up debate.” He also said that we need to help non-aboriginals understand what is happening on reserves because government listens to them.
When the questioner asked if he was trying to shame aborginal people into change he replied, “yes.”
The Frontier Centre for Public Policy was a sponsor of the forum. The Centre offers numerous reports and position papers from around the world on aboriginal issues, all based on respect for reality, truth and the long-term well-being of aboriginals. It’s tagline is, “Policy without Politics.”

Tom Flanagan (University of Calgary) – Beyond the Indian Act: Restoring Aboriginal Property Rights   

100505 New Directions in Aboriginal Policy Forum, Mount Royal University, May 05/10: (L-R) Tom Flanagan (standing); Joseph Quesnel; Albert Howard

100505 New Directions in Aboriginal Policy Forum, Mount Royal University, May 05/10: (L-R) Tom Flanagan (standing); Joseph Quesnel; Albert Howard

Flanagan talked about his idea for legislation allowing reserves to own their land – if they wish – and sell parcels to residents in order to further pride of ownership and entrepreneurship within native communities. This concept forms the basis for his most recent book, Beyond the Indian Act: Restoring Aboriginal Property Rights. He argues that private property existed within aboriginal culture prior to contact with Europeans. He feels that “settlers converted natives into people without property living on land they don’t own.”   

NOTE: Flanagan was the National Campaign Manager for the Conservative Party of Canada, 2003-2005. His book, ‘First Nations, Second Thoughts‘ won the Donner Prize for the best book of the year on public policy.   


Albert Howard (Independent Researcher) – Field of Dreams: “Building” Aboriginal Economies with Property Ownership   

Howard emphasized that Flanagan’s plan for using reserve homes for a business is risky, and that lenders would be reluctant to loan for reserve homes due to the limited market and a reluctance to loan risk capital. He felt that the government does not want to be in the business of repossessing and selling homes.   

Howard suggest that funds should be taken from the ‘aboriginal industry’ and put towards solving reserve problems.   

NOTE: Albert Howard is co-author (along w/forum organizer Frances Widdowson) of the 2008 Donner Prize finalist Disrobing the Aboriginal Industry.   

Joseph Quesnel (Frontier Centre for Public Policy) – The Politics of Cutting Your Losses: Non-viable Reserves and Aboriginal Economic Development   

Status quo = Spending Money by INAC – $11B per year. Quesnel pointed out that from an economical perspective, natives living off-reserve do approximately 40% better than those living on reserves. Non-viable reserves include those with geographical factors (ie. located on flood plain) and those in remote areas. It costs 4-6 times the cost to put together a native project vs. non-native.   

The ‘market’ is not allowed to work for First Nations communities whose people have been sheltered . This is preventing them from integrating within the economy. His solution is to link FN with urban economies where jobs are located. INAC should provide subsidies for non-viable reserves to help them move. He also notes that a lot of ‘assimilation’ by native people is voluntary – through marriage and personal decisions by native people not to teach original languages.   

Quesnel is of Metis descent and is a policy analyst with the Frontier Centre for Public Policy.   


Andrew Hodgkins (University of Alberta) – Bilingual Education in Nunavut: Trojan Horse or Paper Tiger?   

Hodgkins discussed the state of education in Nunavut. His most interesting observation was that since there was no industry in the territory students are primarily educated to fill government jobs.   

Joseph Lane (Independent Researcher, Australia) – Aboriginal Educational Successes in Australia: Mass Tertiary Education and the Development of an Indigenous Class   

Lane points out that aboriginal students in Australia did just as well in non-aboriginal studies as non-aboriginals. He is, however, distressed by the divergence between the success of aboriginals living in the south near urban centres versus those living in the remote areas of the north.   

David Newhouse (Trent University) – Canada Meets the Good Mind   

Frances Widdowson (Mount Royal University) – The Good Mind and Critical Thinking: Exploring the Implications of “Indigenous Knowledge” Meeting the Academy   

100505 New Directions in Aboriginal Policy Forum, Mount Royal University, May 05/10: (L-R) David Newhouse; Frances Widdowson; Andrew Hodgkins; Joseph Lane (not visible)

After David Newhouse opened with his talk about integrating ‘Indigenous Knowledge’  in education, he and forum organizer Frances Widdowson had a planned ‘mini-debate’ on the topic. Newhouse talked about the “Good Mind” which bows to reason and is mindful of the the balance between reason and passion. Widdowson took the position that science and spirituality do not overlap saying, “David’s work has love in it, but contains “non-knowledge” within it.”   


A positive outcome from an unfortunate campaign   

An unfortunate campaign was mounted by those opposed to our work in Caledonia to – once again – silence victims’ voices by smearing us with false allegations of being racist, anti-native white supremacists. Fortunately, however, the campaign backfired once it became clear that the allegations were completely groundless.         

Not only did Mount Royal not revoke our invitations, the campaign against us set the stage for a vigorous defence of academic freedom, and it dramatized the entire purpose of our presentations – that the voices of victims need to be heard.  It also reinforced our credibility with presenters and audience members who were pleasantly surprised. When the forum was over, several presenters wished us well.   

One academic in the audience kindly told us afterwards, “I discovered that you’re not the monsters I was led to believe you were.” I replied, “You just paid for my trip.”         

Well done Mount Royal University!        

The forum was a success at many levels thanks to good organization, knowledgeable speakers, important networking opportunities, the university’s firm stand against those trying to infringe on academic freedom and, of course, the fact that Caledonia’s voice was heard loudly and clearly. Dr. Widdowson’s opening remarks addressed the controversy over attempts to prevent us from speaking and (I believe during her closing comments) she expressed her pride at Mount Royal’s defence of academic freedom, saying she doubted the forum could have taken place in any other university in the country.         

 As you will see on the video (links above) the audience did not hesitate to ask tough questions, but was very respectful. Dr. Widdowson and Dr. David Newhouse’s mini-debate on the role of aboriginal spirituality in science was simply fascinating. Despite being on polar opposites of the issue, the debate was captivating because of the respect shown by one to the other.   

Afterwards, I told Newhouse that I wished we could bottle what I had just witnessed and take it to Caledonia where meaningful debate has been impossible. Even if we had not been presenters, the trip would have been worthwhile just to watch this debate. 

Mount Royal Universitydeserves a sincere pat on the back from every professor and student in the country for making this remarkable forum a reality.  I can only hope that other universities closer to Caledonia will follow in Mount Royal’s courageous footsteps in facilitating meaningful and civil debate that is inclusive of victims.        

Thank you to those who made our participation possible        

Thank you to all who donated your time and money to make this event and our ‘Caledonia’s National Voice’ townhall meeting possible. Gary and I are profoundly grateful for those who provided money for airfare, food, hotel and a car rental. I don’t want to name anyone until I receive permission, but I can thank Merlyn Kinrade for not hesitating even a second in committing his own money when I asked if he knew anyone he could approach to help.         

'Caught in the Middle,' by Barb Patterson-TuckA special note of thanks is due the anonymous Caledonia resident who asked us, on his behalf and on behalf of the people of Caledonia who support our work, to give his ‘Caught in the Middle’ print (with signatures from John Tory, MPP Toby Barrett, Mayor Trainer, and nearly all those depicted) to Dr. Frances Widdowson to thank her for allowing us to tell Caledonia’s story. The print was on display during our presentation.         

Thank you also to the Caledonia residents who provided comments for Calgary and victim impact statements, both of which were incorporated into my presentation.  

Finally, thank you to Mount Royal and Dr. Widdowson for allowing us to tell Caledonia’s story, and for the thoughtful presenter’s gift – a framed print by wildlife artist Sue Coleman entitled, ‘The Cougar.’ 

Final thoughts 

It is my hope that other institutions, clubs, associations and churches in the Caledonia area will walk through the door Mount Royal University has courageously opened to facilitate more discussion, more understanding, and more opportunities to help further the possibilities of healing. 

If you think your organization might benefit from a re-presentation of my/our forum topics, please contact me.  

 Mark Vandermaas, Founder
Caledonia Victims Project


About Mark Vandermaas

I am founder of Israel Truth Week, and I'm the 'Liberate Israel Training Guy.' I train pro-Israel advocates in how to use Israel's land title deed-the Mandate For Palestine-as a powerful moral narrative to counter the false 'occupation' vilification. Also, founder of VoiceofCanada.ca and the Caledonia Victims Project.
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